o-chem help

Strong nucleophiles you need to know [with study guide & chart]

What are strong nucleophiles?   Strong nucleophiles: Strong nucleophiles…this is why molecules react. The nucleophilic site of the nucleophile is the region of a molecule that is reactive and has the electron density. Strong nucleophiles are VERY important throughout organic chemistry, but will be especially important when trying to determine the products of elimination and […]

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Know the “normal” state for common organic atoms [3 rules to live by]

Structures of molecules can be difficult to piece together at first when you are just starting in an organic chemistry class. Hopefully you retained some of this knowledge from general chemistry. If not, one of the tricks that can greatly help with this is to know the uncharged or “normal” state for atoms that are

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Steps of a Free Radical Reactions [simplified – with a great diagram]

The steps of free radical reactions in 2022 This is one of the best depictions of the steps of free radical reactions I have seen.   It shows what can go on in this reactions and how we get from starting material to desired final product. Radical reactions: a quick overview first. A radical reaction is a

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What is a hydrogen bond? [With free chemistry study guide]

What is a hydrogen bond? A hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attraction between an electronegative atom (one that has lone pair electrons) and a hydrogen atom bound to an electronegative atom. Because the electronegative atom has lone pair electrons and steals some electron density from other places, it takes on a partial negative charge, symbolized

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